Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by quantitative real-time PCR in oral rinses from Pneumocystis pneumonia asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients.

TitleDetection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by quantitative real-time PCR in oral rinses from Pneumocystis pneumonia asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsFraczek, MG, Ahmad, S, Richardson, M, Kirwan, M, Bowyer, P, Denning, DW, Rautemaa, R
JournalJ Mycol Med
Volume29
Issue2
Pagination107-111
Date Published2019 Jun
ISSN1773-0449
Abstract

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially life-threatening fungal infection usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystis jirovecii can be easily detected from oral rinse samples in HIV patients with suspected PCP. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to establish the frequency of detection of P. jirovecii in oral rinses from HIV patients without respiratory symptoms or suspicion of PCP. Two saline oral rinses were collected from 100 ambulant HIV patients and from 60 COPD patients (comparator group). Four HIV patients were positive for P. jirovecii. In three patients, the first sample was positive and in one the second one was positive. One of these patients was on PCP prophylaxis and had a CD4 count of 76 cells/mm. The mean CD4 count for all patients was 527 cells/mm. All qRT-PCR test results for the COPD patients were negative. No patient developed PCP at six months follow-up. The qRT-PCR assay can be used to detect P. jirovecii DNA in oral rinse samples from HIV patients without evident clinical symptoms, however the oral carriage of this fungus was rare in our cohort of patients. In conclusion, although rare, a positive oral rinse P. jirovecii result may reflect colonisation, in particular in patients with HIV. This needs to be kept in mind when using oral rinses and qRT-PCR in the diagnosis of P. jirovecii infection.

 
DOI10.1016/j.mycmed.2019.04.001
Alternate JournalJ Mycol Med
PubMed ID31047784